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Everything You Need to Know About Lung Diseases (COPD)


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is another name for lung illness (COPD)

COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is a collection of progressive lung disorders. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most prevalent. Both of these disorders are common in patients with COPD.

Emphysema causes outward airflow to be obstructed by the gradual destruction of air sacs in the lungs. Bronchitis is characterised by inflammation and constriction of the bronchial passages, allowing mucus to accumulate.

Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD. COPD can also be caused by long-term exposure to chemical irritants. It is an illness that takes a long time to manifest.

What are the symptoms?

You may have wheezing and chest tightness, as well as excessive sputum production. Acute exacerbations, or flare-ups of severe symptoms, occur in some patients with COPD.

COPD symptoms might be relatively modest at first. They might be mistaken for a cold.

Early signs and symptoms include:

occasional shortness of breath, especially after exercise

mild but recurrent cough

needing to clear your throat often, especially first thing in the morning

Symptoms can get progressively worse and harder to ignore. As the lungs become more damaged, you may experience:

shortness of breath, after even mild exercise such as walking up a flight of stairs

wheezing, which is a type of higher pitched noisy breathing, especially during exhalations

chest tightness

chronic cough, with or without mucus

need to clear mucus from your lungs every day

frequent colds, flu, or other respiratory infections

lack of energy


Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD in developing nations like India. Approximately 90% of persons with COPD are current or previous smokers.

COPD affects 20 to 30 percent of long-term smokers. Many more acquire lung diseases or have deteriorated lung function.


The majority of persons with COPD are at least 40 years old and have smoked at some point in their lives. The longer you smoke and the more tobacco products you consume, the more likely you are to get COPD. COPD can be caused by cigarette smoking, cigar smoke, pipe smoke, and secondhand smoke, in addition to cigarette smoke.


If you smoke and have asthma, your chances of developing COPD are significantly higher.

COPD can also be caused by being exposed to chemicals and gases at work. COPD can also be caused by long-term exposure to air pollution and dust inhalation.

Along with tobacco smoke, dwellings in impoverished nations are frequently under-ventilated, forcing families to breathe fumes from burning fuel used for cooking and heating.

It’s possible that COPD has a hereditary propensity. A protein termed alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency affects up to 5% of persons with COPD, according to reliable sources. This shortage wreaks havoc on the lungs and can also harm the liver. There might be other hereditary variables at work as well.

COPD is not a contagious disease.


There’s no single test for COPD. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, a physical exam, and diagnostic test results.

When you visit the doctor, be sure to mention all of your symptoms. Tell your doctor if:

you’re a smoker or have smoked in the past

you’re exposed to lung irritants on the job

you’re exposed to a lot of secondhand smoke

you have a family history of COPD

you take over-the-counter or prescription medications

you have asthma or other respiratory conditions


Treatment can help to alleviate symptoms, avoid complications, and slow the development of the condition. A pulmonologist, as well as physical and respiratory therapists, may be part of your healthcare team.


Bronchodilators are drugs that relax the muscles in the airways, allowing you to breathe more easily. Inhalers or nebulizers are commonly used to administer them. To minimize inflammation in the airways, glucocorticosteroids can be used.

Ask your doctor whether you should have an annual flu shot, pneumococcal vaccination, and a tetanus booster that includes protection against pertussis to reduce your risk of other respiratory illnesses (whooping cough).


Surgery is reserved for those with severe COPD or after other therapies have failed, which is more probable if you have severe emphysema.

Bullectomy is a form of surgery that is used to remove a tumor. Surgeons remove big, abnormal air pockets (bullae) from the lungs during this treatment.

Lung volume reduction surgery, which eliminates damaged upper lung tissue, is another option.

In certain circumstances, lung transplantation is an option.

Fetal Echocardiography

A fetal echocardiogram is performed on pregnant women between weeks 18 and 22 of their pregnancy. To check for cardiac abnormalities in the fetus, the transducer is placed across the woman’s belly. Because it does not involve radiation, unlike an X-ray, the test is deemed safe for an unborn kid.

Oxygen therapy

If your blood oxygen level is too low, you can use a mask or nasal cannula to get supplementary oxygen to help you breathe better. It may be more convenient to move around with a portable unit.

Lifestyle changes

Certain lifestyle adjustments may also help lessen or relieve your symptoms.

  1. Quit smoking if you’re a smoker. Your doctor might provide recommendations for items or services that can help you.
  2. Avoid secondhand smoking and chemical odours as much as possible.
  3. Obtain the nourishment that your body need. Create a healthy eating plan with the help of your doctor or a nutritionist.
  4. Consult your doctor to determine how much exercise is appropriate for you.